The India Bangladesh Border Pact - September 2011

In 6- September 2011, the UPA-II government under the leadership of Manmohan Singh signed a border deal between Bangladesh and India (West Bengal, Assam, Tripura and Meghalaya). It involved the demarcation of the entire land boundary between the two countries resolving the status of 162 adversely held enclaves. The total land involved is reportedly 7000 acres.

The agreement allows:
i. Indian citizenship to nearly 14,215 people living in 51 Bangladeshi enclaves in the Indian Territory
ii. grant of Bangladeshi citizenship to around 37,334 people living in 111 Indian enclaves in Bangladesh.

India has:
1. 111 enclaves of land within Bangladesh—nearly 70 square kilometers
2. Bangladesh has 51 enclaves of its own, comprising 28 square kilometers surrounded by India
India would stand to lose - 42 sq km or 10,000 acres.

India and Bangladesh share a 4,096 km land boundary covering five states—West Bengal, Assam, Tripura, Meghalaya and Mizoram. The border is extremely porous and illegal Bangladeshi enter into India everyday. Many of the bordering areas in India have become Islamized and practise Sharia, and numerous Hindu families have had to migrate to other parts of India. Large number of Islamic militants also take advantage of the porpous border and enter India. By many estimates, more than 20m illegal migrants have entered India from Bangladesh since 1971 of whom a majority are Muslims.

Facts:
Outstanding issues of non-demarcate boundary:
1. Assam's Dumabari - 5.374 km
i. Lathitila-Dumabari and Madanpur-Polatol in Karimganj district - 2.874 km
ii. Boroibari in Dhubri district - 2.5 km
2. Tripura's Muhuri river-Belonia -
3. West Bengal's Daikhata-56 sectors

Land Swap Details

1. Assam
a. the state has lost a village, Boraibari, in Dhubri's Mankachar, covering an area of 189.06 acre. It was in adverse possession of Bangladesh since 1971
b. Another 94.6 acre of land in Lalthila
c. 299.04 acre in Pallathal, both in Karimganj which have been in adverse possession of Bangladesh since 1965, have also been ceded away to Bangladesh

Gained: 0 Acre, Lost: 580 Acre

2. Meghalaya
Gained: 240 Acre, Lost: 41 Acres

3. West Bengal
Coochbehar and Jalpaiguri districts
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1. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/guwahati/Gogoi-on-cloud-nine-opposition-fumes/articleshow/9919697.cms
2. http://www.thehindu.com/news/states/other-states/article2439000.ece
3. http://www.assamtribune.com/scripts/detailsnew.asp?id=sep0911/at04
4. http://www.indianexpress.com/news/No-no-man-s-land--PM-and-Hasina-mark-border/842892/
5. http://www.livepunjab.com/node/20702
6. http://ibnlive.in.com/news/indiabangladesh-sign-pact-on-border-demarcation/181937-3.html
7. http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-09-07/guwahati/30122763_1_bjp-raps-govt-bjp-mps-india-bangladesh-border
8. http://www.economist.com/blogs/banyan/2011/02/enclaves_between_india_and_bangladesh

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